Increased requirements for the quality of ferroalloys in the metal market are reflected in the requirements that apply to charge materials and, above all, to carbonaceous reducing agents.

A large group of carbon materials, both fossil and artificial, whose quality does not fully satisfy the requirements of technology and the economy of ferroalloy production, is used as reducing agents.

The most important factors affecting the choice of carbon reducing agent for the production of ferroalloys

  • High electrical resistivity
  • High sorption capacity
  • Good chemisorption ability
  • Low moisture, volatile, ash content on the working mass of the reducing agent
  • High solid carbon content per working mass of reducing agent

On the basis of inexpensive coal grades, a new unique reducing agent was created, the best alternative substitute for charcoal in the metallurgy of silicon and other types of ferroalloys, called “KarboSil-E”, produced by patent-protected technology and the “EPOS-Engineering” equipment – the reversed gasification process.

The problem that existed with the former reducing agents: the high price of the reducing agent, the high energy consumption when melting with the reducing agent, the low resistance of the charge, the incomplete use of raw materials and transformer capacities, and high dust emissions.

The purpose of creating a new reducing agent: to improve the technical characteristics of the ore-thermal furnace (RKO-14), reduce the technological cost of production of ferroalloys and increase profitability.


Figure 1. A pilot plant for testing the production technology of KarboSil-E from coal

Main advantages of the KarboSil-E reducing agent:

  • Low or zero humidity, optimal volatile content - up to 5%;
  • Developed anisotropic pore structure;
  • Higher solid carbon content
  • Sufficient mechanical strength;
  • The electrical resistivity is an order of magnitude higher than that of classical coke at high temperatures.
  • Higher reactivity, 15-20 times higher than classic coke, and high sorption capacity.
  • The lowest calorific value is between 27,000 and 30,000 kJ / kg (depending on the ash content of the coal).

Advantages of the KarboSil-E technology:

  • Reduction of carbon loss;
  • Effective process of incomplete pyrolysis;
  • Low energy costs;
  • Getting high-performance gas fuel;
  • Improved working conditions for staff;
  • No environmentally hazardous dust and gas emissions.
  • Pure combustible gas is generated along with the main product, KarboSil-E, and is a valuable fuel in the production of energy, used in technology.

Advantages of KarboSil-E in metallurgy:

  • Improving the performance of ore-thermal furnaces by controlling the electrical resistance of the charge, trapping gaseous products, the ability to control the landing of the electrodes and the electric mode;
  • Increasing the yield of suitable metal per unit of power up to 25-30%, reducing the consumption of reducing agent, reducing dust emissions up to 10 times;
  • Improving the quality of products in chemical composition, improving the operating mode of ore-thermal furnaces.

Directions for use of the KarboSil-E reducing agent:

  • Highly reactive reducing agents of a new generation fuel for firing technological processes. Substitute of classic coke in electrometallurgy;
  • Highly reactive reducing agent for the production of ferroalloys, and also pure elements, for example silicon;
  • In the production of crystalline silicon, ferrosilicon (FeSi), manganese alloys (FeMn, FeSiMn); chromium alloys (FeCr, FeSiCr); silicocalcium of all grades (SiCa);
  • Active Carburetor for Steelmaking

Chemical industry:

  • Intermediate for sorbents;
  • Highly effective sorbents and catalysts;
  • Special fuel for technological processes

Housing and communal services:

  • smokeless briquettes
  • high efficiency emission filters
  • clean gaseous fuel


  • materials for industrial water treatment, special purposes, wastewater treatment,
  • sorbents for the elimination of oil spills, fuels and lubricants.


  • clean gaseous fuel

To receive it, it is proposed production site + CarboSil-E Technology


Coal of cheap grades is a low margin product

The cost of TR brand coals 2700 rub / t
The cost of coal brand DR 1870 rub / t
Cost CarboSil-E 20 000-30 000 rub / t

Decision: apply the technology of deep processing of raw materials

The KarboSil-E technological process and equipment for its implementation are distinguished by the absence of environmentally hazardous emissions. Pure combustible gas is generated along with the main product, KarboSil-E, and is a valuable fuel in the production of energy and is used in technology.


The main differences from the structure of other carbon materials used in ferroalloy production:

– Technology provides High porosity of the product (2 times higher than coke). Product has two kinds the structure pore – anisotropic and isotropic from open communicating pores, which provides instant heating of the pore walls, thereby achieving the effectiveness of the pore space in the temperature range of the reduction of metal oxides.

Such a pore structure provides maximum gas permeability and a large contact surface area of the reaction gases with the pore walls at high upward gas velocities in a ferroalloy furnace.

– In Technology is achieved controlled pyrogenetic effect with special simultaneous use of thermal and electrical effects on the product during processing


Application example and results:

  • The furnace RK0-14.0 of the West Siberian Metallurgical Plant is produced by MnS17.
  • In the pre-trial period, the furnace worked with an excess of carbon; the electrode landing depth was 1.1-1.3 meters or less. The furnace produced an average of 24.3 tons per ferroalloy per day, sometimes the figure briefly rose to 34 tons on high-quality raw materials.
  • The amount of dust emissions reached 250 kg per ton of alloy.

After the transition to KarboSil-E, ceteris paribus:

  • the electrode landing depth increased to more than 1.7 meters;
  • Losses of manganese with slag decreased from 11.5 to 3.5-5.0%;
  • The manganese extraction coefficient increased from 71.5 to 95-96%;
  • Dust emissions fell from 250 to 40 kg / t alloy;
  • Change in oven mode:
  • Deep electrode landing, more complete use of the furnace power, stable arc burning, quiet mode.
  • Reduced dust emissions, good gas cleaning performance;
  • Lack of gas contamination in the working area, lower gas temperature at the top.
  • With the same furnace power, productivity increases up to 1.5 times;
  • Reducing specific electricity consumption - by 2.2 MWh per ton.


  • Reduce the technological cost of the main process for the production of ferroalloys
  • Increase furnace productivity
  • Ensure stable arc burning, “soft” mode of operation of the furnace
  • Reduce specific energy consumption
  • Reduce dust emissions, increase environmental friendliness of production
  • Raise the recovery rate of the target product

Alloy production increased from 24-30 tons to 58-59 tons per day per kiln.